Kontaridis Lab

Areas of Investigation

My research focuses on understanding the molecular signaling pathways that lead to aberrant regulation of embryonic development and mediate onset of adult disease. In particular, we study the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases and small GTPases in heart development and disease. We have published seminal papers in this field and have garnered a number of extramural grants, both from foundations, industry and NIH. We have also generated a number of tools and techniques including generation of novel in vivo mouse modeling systems and cutting-edge molecular biology techniques, to help conduct the work proposed herein. In this project, we propose to investigate the direct functional role(s) of RhoA in mediating fibrosis in response to cardiac stress and injury. Using a combined, comprehensive set of biochemical, proteomic and genetic approaches, this proposal will help us understand the functional significance and mechanisms by which RhoA can regulate fibrotic events that lead to heart disease and failure. In addition, through use of novel nanoparticle technology, we will utilize cell specific delivery of inhibitors to the downstream RhoA effectors, MRTF and SRF, in an effort to bypass upstream protective effects of RhoA, while at the same time, directly targeting deleterious signals that drive myofibroblast activation and fibrosis.

Lab Focus

My lab is interested in investigating the cardio myogenic defects associated with NS and LS, two autosomal dominant congenital RASopathy disorders principally caused by unique mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Our lab was the first to generate a mammalian mouse model system to study LS. Consequently, we identified that LS mutations lead to increased AKT/mTOR activity. Moreover, we identified that the cardiac hypertrophy associated with LS could be reversed with treatment of Rapamycin. We are currently in process of moving these studies into multi-site clinical trials, with support from the NIH/NCATS TRND mechanism. In addition, our lab is currently investigating how NS and LS mutations differentially affect cardiac-specific tissue lineages during cardiac development in mouse embryos and in iPSCs.

Efforts in the lab utilize a myriad of tools and techniques including iPS cells, in vivo mouse model systems, and molecular biology techniques. Together, these provide valuable mechanistic and functional information in understanding the differential signaling pathways that cause disease and allow for an individualized approach to therapeutic targeting. Specifically, the lab is focused on four main interests: 

1) Understanding the functional mechanisms associated with SHP2 activity in the development of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The lab is interested in understanding how SHP2 is involved in mediating the onset/propagation of SLE. The lab’s data indicate that SHP2 activity is increased in SLE and that this mediates proliferation of cytotoxic T cells, thereby causing lupus pathogenicity. Use of a novel inhibitor for SHP2 ameliorated SLE pathogenesis; increased lifespan, decreased fibrosis and inflammation in tissues, and reduced the number of skin lesions in SLE-prone mice. These data suggest that development of an SHP2 inhibitor may serve as a novel treatment for SLE.

2) Elucidation of the cardio myogenic defects associated with Noonan (NS) and LEOPARD (LS) Syndromes. The lab is interested in investigating the cardio myogenic defects associated with NS and LS, two autosomal dominant congenital RASopathy disorders principally caused by unique mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. The Kontaridis group was the first to generate a mammalian mouse model system to study LS. Consequently, they identified that LS mutations led to increased AKT/mTOR activity. Moreover, they identified that the cardiac hypertrophy associated with LS could be reversed with treatment of Rapamycin. The lab is currently in process of moving these studies into multi-site clinical trials, with support from the NIH/NCATS TRND mechanism. In addition, the lab is investigating how NS and LS mutations differentially affect cardiac-specific tissue lineages during cardiac development in mouse embryos and in iPSCs.

3) Determining the phosphatase-independent functions of SHP2 in development and disease. The Kontaridis lab identified novel functional roles for SHP2 in the regulation of downstream signaling events. They were the first to identify that LS-associated SHP2 mutations, unlike the NS mutations, were loss-of-function for phosphatase activity and behaved as dominant-negatives in downstream signaling. This created a paradigm shift that altered the way phosphatases were thought to function in cellular signaling, in general, and suggested that RASopathy disorders should be distinguished by mutational analysis rather than by clinical presentation alone. Currently, the lab is investigating whether SHP2 has unique phosphatase-independent functions critical for the propagation of downstream signaling.

4) Deciphering the cardio protective effects of the small G protein RhoA in the failing adult heart. The Kontaridis lab has discovered that RhoA, an enzyme regulated in part by SHP2, is involved in transitioning compensatory cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure. Moreover, it is involved in fibrosis, making RhoA and its downstream effectors attractive targets for therapeutic approaches in treating cardiac disease. Projects in the lab are focused on elucidating the RhoA-mediated signaling pathways involved in fibrosis and in onset of end-stage heart failure.

Maria Kontaridis, Ph.D.
Executive Director / Gordon K. Moe Professor and Chair Biomedical Research and Translational Medicine / Director of Research

Other Professional Titles : Associate Professor of Medicine, Part-time Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts  

Email: ,Phone (315) 624-7490

Dr. Maria Irene Kontaridis is currently the Director of Research at the Masonic Medical Research Institute in Utica, NY. She also holds a part-time faculty appointment as an Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine/Division of Cardiology in Boston, MA. Dr. Kontaridis received her undergraduate degrees (B.A. and B.S.) from the University of Florida in Classics and Chemistry, and subsequently, obtained her master’s degrees both in Pharmacology and in Biomedical and Biological Sciences from Yale University in 1999 and 2001, respectively. In 2002, she was awarded a Ph.D. from Yale University for work with Dr. Anton Bennett on the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases, especially SHP2, in cell growth and skeletal muscle differentiation. Dr. Kontaridis' interest in continuing to work on SHP2 phosphatase led her to accept a postdoctoral position with Dr. Benjamin Neel, at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in 2003. Her work as a postdoctoral fellow garnered extramural support from the American Heart Association and the NIH Pathway to Independence Award (K99/R00).  In 2007, Dr. Kontaridis was promoted to Instructor, and in 2008, was recruited to the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology at BIDMC as an Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. In 2015, she was named the Director of Basic Cardiovascular Research at BIDMC and in 2016 was promoted to Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.  In 2018, Dr. Kontaridis took on a new role as the Director of Research at the Masonic Medical Research Institute in upstate NY. Dr. Kontaridis’ independent research program focuses on the fundamental mechanisms underlying both congenital heart disease and end-stage heart failure, and the processes that lead to abnormal development, aberrant signaling and disease onset. She has made several seminal observations about SHP2 and its role in cardiac pathophysiology and disease, as well as in autoimmunity. Her work has been awarded grants from the Milton Foundation, the Children’s Cardiomyopathy Foundation, the Saving Tiny Hearts Foundation, the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the Alliance of Lupus Research and the National Institutes of Health (NHLBI-R01s and NCATS-TRND) as well as has garnered support from industry and pharmaceutical companies (Novartis, GSK, Arqule).

Dr. Kontaridis is also actively involved in the medical and research community and has established herself in a number of significant leadership roles. In Boston, she served as co-chair for the Joint Committee on the Status of Women at Harvard Medical School, an important group dedicated to the development and leadership of women in the Harvard community. In addition, she also served as Chair of the Research Safety Committee at BIDMC, dedicated to development of proper work ethics and safety policies for research scientists. Dr. Kontaridis continues to be a member of the Harvard Medical School Biomedical and Biological Sciences Faculty Program, where she has a joint appointment in the department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and with the Leder Human Biology and Translational Medicine Program of Harvard Medical School. More nationally, Dr. Kontaridis is an appointed Fellow of the American Heart Association, where she has served as chair of the Early Career Committee for the BCVS Council and now serves on the Council of Operations as the Chair of all AHA Early Career Councils. In 2018, Dr. Kontaridis was elected to serve as a Council member for the ISHR-North American Section. She has also co-chaired and organized the Weinstein Conference for Developmental Cardiology in 2015 and the AHA BCVS Summer Conference in 2016. In 2018, she co-chaired the first ever Olympiad in Cardiovascular Medicine Symposium in Athens, Greece.


- 1995 B.S., (Cum Laude), Chemistry, University of Florida

- 1995 B.A., (Summa Cum Laude), Classical Studies, University of Florida

- 2000 M.S., Pharmacology and Molecular Medicine, Yale University

- 2001 M.Phil., Pharmacology and Molecular Medicine, Yale University

- 2002 Ph.D., Biological and Biomedical Sciences (mentor:  Anton Bennett, Ph.D.), Yale University

Postdoctoral Training

- 2002-2003 Postdoctoral Fellow, Pharmacology (mentor:  Anton Bennett, Ph.D.), Yale University

- 2003-2007 Research Fellow, Hematology/Oncology (mentor:  Benjamin G. Neel, M.D., Ph.D.), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


Research Scientist

- Gary Aistrup, Ph.D.

Research Scientist/Surgeon

-Bing Xu, Ph.D.

FACS Core Manager

- Samantha Le Sommer, Ph.D.

Research Assistants

- Ariana Della Posta 

Postdoctoral Fellows

- Saravanakkumar Chennappan, Ph.D.

- Juan Carlos Gutierrez Suarez, M.D., M.Sc.

- Myles Hodgson, Ph.D.

- Samantha Le Sommer, Ph.D.

- Abhishek Mishra, Ph.D.

- Luana Nunes Santos, Ph.D.

- Yan Sun, Ph.D.

  1. Chouhan, S, Sridaran, D, Weimholt, C, Luo, J, Li, T, Hodgson, MC et al.. SHP2 as a primordial epigenetic enzyme expunges histone H3 pTyr-54 to amend androgen receptor homeostasis. Nat Commun. 2024;15 (1):5629. doi: 10.1038/s41467-024-49978-4. PubMed PMID:38965223 PubMed Central PMC11224269.
  2. Le Sommer, S, Sun, Y, Legler, L, Nelson, K, Coon, L, Bohler, D et al.. Detection and Eradication of a Demodex Infestation in Specific Pathogen-free High-barrier Laboratory Mouse Facility Housing Immunocompromised Animals. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2024; :. doi: 10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-23-000092. PubMed PMID:38908907 .
  3. Winston, T, Song, Y, Shi, H, Yang, J, Alsudais, M, Kontaridis, MI et al.. Lineage-Specific Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Human iPSCs Showed Distinct Patterns in Transcriptomic Profile and Extracellular Vesicle Production. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2024; :e2308975. doi: 10.1002/advs.202308975. PubMed PMID:38757640 .
  4. Sommer, SL, Kontaridis, MI. Cardio-rheumatology: the cardiovascular, pharmacological, and surgical risks associated with rheumatological diseases in women. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2024; :. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2023-0420. PubMed PMID:38489782 .
  5. Pierpont, EI, Bennett, AM, Schoyer, L, Stronach, B, Anschutz, A, Borrie, SC et al.. The 8th International RASopathies Symposium: Expanding research and care practice through global collaboration and advocacy. Am J Med Genet A. 2024;194 (4):e63477. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63477. PubMed PMID:37969032 PubMed Central PMC10939912.
  6. Bose, RJ, Kessinger, CW, Dhammu, T, Singh, T, Shealy, MW, Ha, K et al.. Biomimetic Nanomaterials for the Immunomodulation of the Cardiosplenic Axis Postmyocardial Infarction. Adv Mater. 2024;36 (8):e2304615. doi: 10.1002/adma.202304615. PubMed PMID:37934471 PubMed Central PMC10922695.
  7. Sheldon, C, Kessinger, CW, Sun, Y, Kontaridis, MI, Ma, Q, Hammoud, SS et al.. Myh6 promoter-driven Cre recombinase excises floxed DNA fragments in a subset of male germline cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2023;175 :62-66. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2022.12.005. PubMed PMID:36584478 PubMed Central PMC9974737.
  8. Kontaridis, MI, Chennappan, S. Mitochondria and the future of RASopathies: the emergence of bioenergetics. J Clin Invest. 2022;132 (8):1-5. doi: 10.1172/JCI157560. PubMed PMID:35426371 PubMed Central PMC9017150.
  9. Li, G, Manning, AC, Bagi, A, Yang, X, Gokulnath, P, Spanos, M et al.. Distinct Stress-Dependent Signatures of Cellular and Extracellular tRNA-Derived Small RNAs. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2022;9 (17):e2200829. doi: 10.1002/advs.202200829. PubMed PMID:35373532 PubMed Central PMC9189662.
  10. Kontaridis, MI, Roberts, AE, Schill, L, Schoyer, L, Stronach, B, Andelfinger, G et al.. The seventh international RASopathies symposium: Pathways to a cure-expanding knowledge, enhancing research, and therapeutic discovery. Am J Med Genet A. 2022;188 (6):1915-1927. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62716. PubMed PMID:35266292 PubMed Central PMC9117434.
  11. Annex, BH, Bristow, MR, Frangogiannis, NG, Kelly, DP, Kontaridis, MI, Libby, P et al.. JACC: Basic to Translational Science Top Reviewers 2021: With Appreciation. JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2022;7 (2):192. doi: 10.1016/j.jacbts.2022.01.007. PubMed PMID:35257046 PubMed Central PMC8897159.
  12. Gao, Y, Sun, Y, Ercan-Sencicek, AG, King, JS, Akerberg, BN, Ma, Q et al.. YAP/TEAD1 Complex Is a Default Repressor of Cardiac Toll-Like Receptor Genes. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22 (13):. doi: 10.3390/ijms22136649. PubMed PMID:34206257 PubMed Central PMC8268263.
  13. Hoang, P, Kowalczewski, A, Sun, S, Winston, TS, Archilla, AM, Lemus, SM et al.. Engineering spatial-organized cardiac organoids for developmental toxicity testing. Stem Cell Reports. 2021;16 (5):1228-1244. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.03.013. PubMed PMID:33891865 PubMed Central PMC8185451.
  14. Unudurthi, SD, Luthra, P, Bose, RJC, McCarthy, JR, Kontaridis, MI. Cardiac inflammation in COVID-19: Lessons from heart failure. Life Sci. 2020;260 :118482. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118482. PubMed PMID:32971105 PubMed Central PMC7505073.
  15. Gripp, KW, Schill, L, Schoyer, L, Stronach, B, Bennett, AM, Blaser, S et al.. The sixth international RASopathies symposium: Precision medicine-From promise to practice. Am J Med Genet A. 2020;182 (3):597-606. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61434. PubMed PMID:31825160 PubMed Central PMC7021559.
  16. Jaffré, F, Miller, CL, Schänzer, A, Evans, T, Roberts, AE, Hahn, A et al.. Inducible Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Reveal Aberrant Extracellular Regulated Kinase 5 and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1/2 Signaling Concomitantly Promote Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in RAF1-Associated Noonan Syndrome. Circulation. 2019;140 (3):207-224. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.037227. PubMed PMID:31163979 PubMed Central PMC6709678.
  17. Li, R, Baskfield, A, Lin, Y, Beers, J, Zou, J, Liu, C et al.. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line (TRNDi003-A) from a Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) patient carrying a p.Q510P mutation in the PTPN11 gene. Stem Cell Res. 2019;34 :101374. doi: 10.1016/j.scr.2018.101374. PubMed PMID:30640061 PubMed Central PMC7017387.
  18. Zheng, H, Yu, WM, Waclaw, RR, Kontaridis, MI, Neel, BG, Qu, CK et al.. Gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 induce hydrocephalus in a catalytically dependent manner. Sci Signal. 2018;11 (522):. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aao1591. PubMed PMID:29559584 PubMed Central PMC5915342.
  19. Sun, C, Kontaridis, MI. Physiology of Cardiac Development: From Genetics to Signaling to Therapeutic Strategies. Curr Opin Physiol. 2018;1 :123-139. doi: 10.1016/j.cophys.2017.09.002. PubMed PMID:29532042 PubMed Central PMC5844510.
  20. Wang, J, Chandrasekhar, V, Abbadessa, G, Yu, Y, Schwartz, B, Kontaridis, MI et al.. In vivo efficacy of the AKT inhibitor ARQ 092 in Noonan Syndrome with multiple lentigines-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PLoS One. 2017;12 (6):e0178905. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178905. PubMed PMID:28582432 PubMed Central PMC5459472.
  21. Simonson, B, Subramanya, V, Chan, MC, Zhang, A, Franchino, H, Ottaviano, F et al.. DDiT4L promotes autophagy and inhibits pathological cardiac hypertrophy in response to stress. Sci Signal. 2017;10 (468):. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aaf5967. PubMed PMID:28246202 PubMed Central PMC5509050.
  22. Tzanavari, T, Varela, A, Theocharis, S, Ninou, E, Kapelouzou, A, Cokkinos, DV et al.. Metformin protects against infection-induced myocardial dysfunction. Metabolism. 2016;65 (10):1447-58. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2016.06.012. PubMed PMID:27621180 PubMed Central PMC5456263.
  23. Lauriol, J, Cabrera, JR, Roy, A, Keith, K, Hough, SM, Damilano, F et al.. Developmental SHP2 dysfunction underlies cardiac hypertrophy in Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines. J Clin Invest. 2016;126 (8):2989-3005. doi: 10.1172/JCI80396. PubMed PMID:27348588 PubMed Central PMC4966304.
  24. Wang, J, Mizui, M, Zeng, LF, Bronson, R, Finnell, M, Terhorst, C et al.. Inhibition of SHP2 ameliorates the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Invest. 2016;126 (6):2077-92. doi: 10.1172/JCI87037. PubMed PMID:27183387 PubMed Central PMC4887187.
  25. Breitkopf, SB, Yang, X, Begley, MJ, Kulkarni, M, Chiu, YH, Turke, AB et al.. A Cross-Species Study of PI3K Protein-Protein Interactions Reveals the Direct Interaction of P85 and SHP2. Sci Rep. 2016;6 :20471. doi: 10.1038/srep20471. PubMed PMID:26839216 PubMed Central PMC4738311.
  26. Hahn, A, Lauriol, J, Thul, J, Behnke-Hall, K, Logeswaran, T, Schänzer, A et al.. Rapidly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an infant with Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines: palliative treatment with a rapamycin analog. Am J Med Genet A. 2015;167A (4):744-51. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36982. PubMed PMID:25708222 PubMed Central PMC4598061.
  27. Lauriol, J, Keith, K, Jaffré, F, Couvillon, A, Saci, A, Goonasekera, SA et al.. RhoA signaling in cardiomyocytes protects against stress-induced heart failure but facilitates cardiac fibrosis. Sci Signal. 2014;7 (348):ra100. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2005262. PubMed PMID:25336613 PubMed Central PMC4300109.
  28. Lauriol, J, Jaffré, F, Kontaridis, MI. The role of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in cardiac development and disease. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2015;37 :73-81. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2014.09.013. PubMed PMID:25256404 PubMed Central PMC4339543.
  29. Paardekooper Overman, J, Yi, JS, Bonetti, M, Soulsby, M, Preisinger, C, Stokes, MP et al.. PZR coordinates Shp2 Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome signaling in zebrafish and mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34 (15):2874-89. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00135-14. PubMed PMID:24865967 PubMed Central PMC4135572.
  30. Kontaridis, MI. How to get a K award: it is not just about the science. Circ Res. 2014;114 (6):941-3. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.302994. PubMed PMID:24625724 PubMed Central PMC3988580.
  31. Dolmatova, E, Spagnol, G, Boassa, D, Baum, JR, Keith, K, Ambrosi, C et al.. Cardiomyocyte ATP release through pannexin 1 aids in early fibroblast activation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;303 (10):H1208-18. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00251.2012. PubMed PMID:22982782 PubMed Central PMC3517637.
  32. Lauriol, J, Kontaridis, MI. PTPN11-associated mutations in the heart: has LEOPARD changed Its RASpots?. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2011;21 (4):97-104. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2012.03.006. PubMed PMID:22681964 PubMed Central PMC3372917.
  33. Marin, TM, Keith, K, Davies, B, Conner, DA, Guha, P, Kalaitzidis, D et al.. Rapamycin reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a mouse model of LEOPARD syndrome-associated PTPN11 mutation. J Clin Invest. 2011;121 (3):1026-43. doi: 10.1172/JCI44972. PubMed PMID:21339643 PubMed Central PMC3049377.
  34. Stewart, RA, Sanda, T, Widlund, HR, Zhu, S, Swanson, KD, Hurley, AD et al.. Phosphatase-dependent and -independent functions of Shp2 in neural crest cells underlie LEOPARD syndrome pathogenesis. Dev Cell. 2010;18 (5):750-62. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2010.03.009. PubMed PMID:20493809 PubMed Central PMC3035154.
  35. Kontaridis, MI, Yang, W, Bence, KK, Cullen, D, Wang, B, Bodyak, N et al.. Deletion of Ptpn11 (Shp2) in cardiomyocytes causes dilated cardiomyopathy via effects on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase and RhoA signaling pathways. Circulation. 2008;117 (11):1423-35. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.728865. PubMed PMID:18316486 PubMed Central PMC2394674.
  36. Bentires-Alj, M, Kontaridis, MI, Neel, BG. Stops along the RAS pathway in human genetic disease. Nat Med. 2006;12 (3):283-5. doi: 10.1038/nm0306-283. PubMed PMID:16520774 .
  37. Kontaridis, MI, Swanson, KD, David, FS, Barford, D, Neel, BG. PTPN11 (Shp2) mutations in LEOPARD syndrome have dominant negative, not activating, effects. J Biol Chem. 2006;281 (10):6785-92. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M513068200. PubMed PMID:16377799 .
  38. Haider, UG, Roos, TU, Kontaridis, MI, Neel, BG, Sorescu, D, Griendling, KK et al.. Resveratrol inhibits angiotensin II- and epidermal growth factor-mediated Akt activation: role of Gab1 and Shp2. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;68 (1):41-8. doi: 10.1124/mol.104.005421. PubMed PMID:15849355 .
  39. Kontaridis, MI, Eminaga, S, Fornaro, M, Zito, CI, Sordella, R, Settleman, J et al.. SHP-2 positively regulates myogenesis by coupling to the Rho GTPase signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24 (12):5340-52. doi: 10.1128/MCB.24.12.5340-5352.2004. PubMed PMID:15169898 PubMed Central PMC419889.
  40. Ivins Zito, C, Kontaridis, MI, Fornaro, M, Feng, GS, Bennett, AM. SHP-2 regulates the phosphatidylinositide 3'-kinase/Akt pathway and suppresses caspase 3-mediated apoptosis. J Cell Physiol. 2004;199 (2):227-36. doi: 10.1002/jcp.10446. PubMed PMID:15040005 .
  41. Zhang, SQ, Yang, W, Kontaridis, MI, Bivona, TG, Wen, G, Araki, T et al.. Shp2 regulates SRC family kinase activity and Ras/Erk activation by controlling Csk recruitment. Mol Cell. 2004;13 (3):341-55. doi: 10.1016/s1097-2765(04)00050-4. PubMed PMID:14967142 .
  42. Kontaridis, MI, Liu, X, Zhang, L, Bennett, AM. Role of SHP-2 in fibroblast growth factor receptor-mediated suppression of myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22 (11):3875-91. doi: 10.1128/MCB.22.11.3875-3891.2002. PubMed PMID:11997521 PubMed Central PMC133814.
  43. Kontaridis, MI, Liu, X, Zhang, L, Bennett, AM. SHP-2 complex formation with the SHP-2 substrate-1 during C2C12 myogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2001;114 (Pt 11):2187-98. doi: 10.1242/jcs.114.11.2187. PubMed PMID:11493654 .
  44. Edwards, PD, Topping, D, Kontaridis, MI, Moldawer, LL, Copeland, EM 3rd, Lind, DS et al.. Arginine-enhanced enteral nutrition augments the growth of a nitric oxide-producing tumor. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1997;21 (4):215-9. doi: 10.1177/0148607197021004215. PubMed PMID:9252947 .
  45. Lind, DS, Kontaridis, MI, Edwards, PD, Josephs, MD, Moldawer, LL, Copeland, EM 3rd et al.. Nitric oxide contributes to adriamycin's antitumor effect. J Surg Res. 1997;69 (2):283-7. doi: 10.1006/jsre.1997.5015. PubMed PMID:9224394 .
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